The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, mechanical, fluid, and chemical disciplines. You can download ready-to-use tutorial models and demo apps with step-by-step instructions for how to create them yourself. The examples in the gallery serve as a great starting point for your own simulation work.

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Startup of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

The hydrolysis of propylene oxide into propylene glycol is an important chemical process with 400,000 metric tons produced worldwide each year. Propylene glycol finds wide application as a moisturizer in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. In this example, the startup phase of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) used to produce propylene glycol is investigated. The non-isothermal ...

Optimization of a Catalytic Microreactor

In this application, a solution is pumped through a catalytic bed where a solute species reacts as it gets in contact with the catalyst. The purpose of this example is to maximize the total reaction rate for a given total pressure difference across the bed by finding an optimal catalyst distribution. The distribution of the porous catalyst determines the total reaction rate in the bed. A large ...

Laminar Static Mixer

In static mixers, also called motionless or in-line mixers, a fluid is pumped through a pipe containing stationary blades. This mixing technique is particularly well suited for laminar flow mixing because it generates only small pressure losses in this flow regime. This example studies the flow in a twisted-blade static mixer. The mixing of one species dissolved in water at room temperature is ...

Ibuprofen Synthesis

Kinetic analysis of catalytic reactions is essential for understanding rate behavior as well as the reaction mechanism. Developing knowledge of intrinsic reaction kinetics and of rate equations is central to reaction engineering studies aimed at improving reactor design. This model illustrates the reaction kinetics of a complex chemistry occurring in a perfectly stirred tank reactor. The ...

Neutralization of Chlorine in a Scrubber

This example studies the kinetics of the neutralization of chlorine gas in water solution. The model assumes that the fluid volume is perfectly mixed and constant. This means that the chlorine has dissolved to an almost saturated state (1·10-2 mol/m3) and that the hydroxide has also mixed well throughout, as would be the case for a very small amount of fluid in a scrubber. The study allows ...

Semibatch Polymerization

As reactant monomer converts into polymer chains, the density of the reacting mixture often changes notably. In this example you will look at how this effect impacts the total production of polymer in a process. The liquid phase polymerization takes place in a semibatch reactor, where two operating conditions are compared. In the first scenario, the feed of monomer to the reactor is turned off ...

Modeling of an Enzyme-Based Biofuel Cell Anode

Enzyme-based biofuel cells (EBFCs) use biomass and specific enzymes known as biocatalysts in order to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. At the anode of an EBFC, the biomass (substrate) is oxidized to produce protons and electrons. Mediators are used in the anode to shuttle the electrons from enzymes to electrodes. At the cathode, the oxidant (oxygen) reacts with the protons and ...

Maxwell-Stefan Diffusion in a Fuel Cell Unit Cell

In concentrated gases and liquids, where the concentrations of species are of the same order of magnitude, there is no obvious solvent-solute relationship. Fick’s law for diffusion accounts only for one-way solute-solvent interactions whereas the Maxwell-Stefan equations account for all interactions of species in a solution. In a system with three components, three pair-wise interactions are ...

Water Purification by Silver Complexation

Many industrial processes leave remainders of toxic dissolved metal ions in process flows. A common method for removing metal ions from water is complexation. This model example shows a purification reactor where silver ions are complexated to diamine-silver for removal. Ammonia (L) is added across a membrane in a tubular reactor in order to remove silver ions (M) from a water stream. A metal ...

Parameter Estimation for Nonideal Reactor Models

Real reactors can be modeled as combinations of ideal reactors. In this example the so-called "Dead zone model" is utilized. Two ideal CSTRs with interchange are set up to model the real reactor. One CSTR represents the highly agitated region and the other the less agitated region. For this, two parameters relating the volume and exchange rate of the two regions need to be found by comparing ...